10 February, 2021

History books and source materials on the bloody Partition of India

Partition of India - SGPC Records (1946-47) Vol. 2, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (1946-47) Download / Read

Rape of Rawalpindi, Prabodh Chandra (1947) Download / Read

Select Newspaper Coverage - Partition of India (1947) Download / Read

Khooni Saal Diyan Khooni Holiyan (Gurmukhi), Giani Kartar Singh (1947) Download / Read

1947 Da Khooni Itihaas (Gurmukhi), Avtar Singh Bedi (1947) Download / Read

Partition of India - Report on Atrocities, Ministry of Relief and Rehabilitation, Government of India (1948) Download / Read

The Punjab Tragedy (1947), Prof. Darbara Singh (1949) Download / Read

Now It Can Be Told, Prof. Amar Nath Bali (1949) Download / Read

Stern Reckoning, Justice Gopal Das Khosla (1949) Download / Read

Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947, Prof. Gurbachan Singh Talib (1950) Download / Read

Punjab Vich Sikhan-Hinduaan Upar Kite Gye Muslim Leeg De Hamle Di Vithiya 1947 (Gurmukhi), Prof. Gurbachan Singh Talib (1951) Download / Read

A Diary of the Partition Days 1947, Dr. Ganda Singh (1960) Download / Read

The Partition Of The Punjab - Dr. Kirpal Singh's PhD Thesis (1966) Download / Read

The Partition Of The Punjab, Dr. Kirpal Singh (1972) Download / Read

Sikhan De Pakistan Vichon Niklan Di Gaatha (Gurmukhi), Dr. Kirpal Singh (2001) Download / Read 

Select Documents on Partition of Punjab - 1947: India and Pakistan, Dr. Kirpal Singh (1988, 2005) Download / Read 

Bharat Di Azadi Da Agman Ate Sikh Sthiti (Gurmukhi), Dr. Kirpal Singh (2009) Download / Read 

(Digitized books courtesy Punjab Digital Library www.panjabdigilib.org and other sources)

22 December, 2020

Yogmaya Temple, Delhi - Ink and colours on paper (1843)

[From 'Reminiscences of Imperial Delhi’, an album consisting of 89 folios containing approximately 130 paintings of views of the Mughal and pre-Mughal monuments of Delhi, as well as other contemporary material, with an accompanying manuscript text written by Sir Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe (1795-1853), the Governor-General’s Agent at the imperial court. Acquired with the assistance of the Heritage Lottery Fund and of the National Art-Collections Fund.]

[The shrine of Jog Maya near the Qutb Minar. Built during the reign of Akbar II (r.1806-37) at the site of an ancient temple, the Jogmaya temple is one of the most important Hindu shrines in the city, but no trace of the original survives.]

The Shrine of Jog (‘Worship’) Maya (‘Wealth, also a name for Luchmee the goddess of wealth’) at the Kootoob dedicated to Devee an Hindoo goddess is said to have been from time immemorial the site of idolatrous worship. The two temples represented were built, the one by Rana (‘King- Chief’) Peertee or Pritvy Raj (‘Peertee or Pritvy Raj: Lord of the Earth’), and the other by his chief almoner. Rana Peertee called also Rae (‘King’) Pittorah, the latter a corruption without any meaning, was the King of Ajmere and Indra (‘God of Elements’) Put (‘Town or City’) the ancient Hindoo city of Dehly, the name being derived from Delu or Dehlu, the chief Zumundar or land proprietor of the place.

It was in Pittorah’s Reign that the Afghan Emperor Shahabooddeen (‘Strength of the Fait’) Ghoree (‘Name of Family or Dynasty’) (vide page 74 [f. 72v]) invaded India. In his first expedition A.D. 1186, he took possession of Lahore. He next turned his arms against the Hindoo Princes of Hindoostan, but was defeated in his first attempt by Rae Pittorah in A.D. 1191 at Telowree, one march from Kurnaul: but in 1193 he again returned with and immense army. Pittorah was in his turn defeated and being taken prisoner in the pursuit was put to death in cold blood.

Since the introduction of the British Rule, the shrine has been much enlarged and beautified by the Hindoo nobility of Dehly. It is held in much repute by idolaters and at annual periods is visited from afar by thousands of misguided devotees who liberally according to their several means present offerings to the Goddess and make vows of future pecuniary sacrifice on the fulfilment of their hopes or prayers.

06 December, 2020

List of 10 women said to have slept with 'Mahatma' Gandhi in his bed

Above: Gandhi with six-year-old Indira Gandhi during his 21-day fast in Delhi in 1924 (Source: Express Archive)

Nicholas F. Gier, Professor Emeritus, University of Idaho

1. Sushila Nayar was only 15 when she came to the Sabarmati Ashram and then became Gandhi's intimate companion, with some periods of alienation and remove, for the rest of his life. Gandhi claimed that Nayar was a natural brahmachari, having observed it from childhood. They bathed together and even used the same bath water, but Gandhi assured everyone that he kept his "eyes tightly shut."

2. Lilavati Asar, associated with Gandhi from 1926-1948, slept in his bed and gave him "service," which meant bathing and massaging.

3. Sharada Parnerkar slept "close" to Gandhi and rendered "service." She was very ill in October, 1940, and Gandhi gave her regular enemas.

4. Amtul Salaam, whom Gandhi called his "crazy daughter," was a Punjabi from Patiala. She was also a bedmate and masseuse. Gandhi once wrote about the joy he gave Salaam when she received a massage from him.

5. Prabhavati Narayan, a Kashmiri, lived in an unconsummated marriage with Jayaprakash Narayan, Indira Gandhi's most famous political foe. Because of her lack of sexual interest or desire, Gandhi thought that Prabhavati would be a perfect married brahmachari. In addition to sleeping with Gandhi, she also gave him "service."

6. Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur, married to a Rajasthani prince, was India’s first health minister and was a Gandhi associate for 30 years. Although older, she slept right along with the younger women in Gandhi's quarters. She also helped with baths and massages.

7. Sucheta Kriplani, a member of Parliament and professor at Benares Hindu University, was a member of Gandhi’s Peace Brigade in East Bengal in 1947. She maintained a brahmachari marriage with J. B. Kriplani, a famous socialist and saint. Gandhi fought their union tooth and nail. Although Gandhi invited Mrs. Kriplani to his bed on a regular basis, he insisted that married couples in his ashrams always sleep in different quarters.

8. Abha Gandhi was a Bengali who accompanied the Mahatma in East Bengal. She started sleeping with Gandhi when she was 16; she also bathed him and washed his clothes.

9. Kanchan Shah, also a married woman, had a "one night stand" with Gandhi and was banned from brahmacharya experiments because she reputedly wanted to have sex with him. Gandhi gave the following instructions on brahmachari marriage to Shah and her husband: "You should not touch each other. You shall not talk to each other. You shall not work together. You should not take service from each other." But Gandhi of course received "service" from his women on a daily basis. On the hypocrisy of taking what he denied to others, Kumar has this to say: "The vow of brahmacharya was a revenge he took upon everyone else."

10. Manu Gandhi was his brother’s granddaughter and she was his constant companion for the last eight years of his life. Interestingly enough, there is a temple to Manu, a powerful rain goddess, in Gandhi’s home city of Porbandar.

(Extract from WAS GANDHI A TANTRIC?)

22 October, 2020

Sharad Pawar - Dawood Ibrahim Links: Extracts from Vohra Committee Report

OUTLOOK EXCLUSIVE - 14 February 1996

Pawar's Time Of Reckoning

Secret papers allege that the Maharashtra politician had links with hawala agents close to Dawood


The Nexus

After the 1993 Bombay blasts, the Home Ministry collected considerable information on the links between Congress politicians and the underworld. The details of this investigation were submitted to the Vohra Committee. Excerpts:

Underworld Operator Political/Bureaucratic Patronage


Dawood Ibrahim: Sharad Pawar, Salim Zakaria, Javed Khan (both ex-ministers close to Pawar)

Mohammed Dosa: Madan Baffna (ex-minister)

P. Raj Koli: Arun Mehta (former home minister)

Haji Ahmed: D.V. Patil, Javed

Khan Khan Brothers: Arun Mehta, Salim Zakaria (ex-ministers)

Tiger Memon: Javed Khan


Abdul Latif: Chimanbhai Patel (ex-chief minister)

Rati Lal Deva Navik: Cadir Peerjada ( PCC vice-president),

Izzu Sheikh, Haji: Ahmed Patel, AICC general secretary

Hassana Dada: C.D. Patel (home minister), Thakor Nair (supply minister).

Amar Subhania: Chimanbhai Patel

Ram Bhai Gadwai: Ashok Lal ("s/o Babu Lal, minister of sports") Santosheben Jadeja, MLA: "Earlier of Janata Dal. Joined Congress. Known as mafia queen."

The MHA report lists, among others, godman Chandraswami and notorious criminal Babloo Srivastava as close associates of Dawood.

Just last year they had called it a damp squib. Now it looks like another political tinderbox, awaiting ignition. In mid-1995, when the N.N. Vohra Committee report on the criminal-politician nexus was tabled in Parliament, the Opposition was united in heaping scorn on it. The perception was that the 12-page report was incomplete and politically sensitive information had been suppressed. Months later, after the episode had receded from public memory, there is evidence to confirm that suspicion. Some documents submitted to the committee by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and procured by Outlook reveal shocking charges of the murky link between prominent politicians and the underworld.

The MHA report alleges that there was a definite nexus between underworld don Dawood Ibrahim's associates and former Maharashtra chief minister Sharad Pawar. According to the report, Mool Chand Shah alias Choksi—a hawala racketeer also involved in the Jain case and "close to Dawood Ibrahim and gang"—had, on various occasions between December 1979 and October 1992,transferred or paid Rs 72 crore to Pawar. Many other Congress leaders have also been listed as recipients of money from Shah.

The report states that "between December 1979 and February 1980, Mool Chand Choksi paid Rs 7 crore to Sharad Pawar, which was received from an undisclosed source in the West". It also confirms that Choksi had "developed closeness" with Dawood and his gang way back in 1980. Shah was also responsible for transferring money for "various important people of Bombay to the Middle-East and other countries for safe caching".

Choksi is said to have paid another instalment of Rs 5 crore around May 1991 to Pawar. According to the report, "the amount was reportedly transferred from a Middle-Eastern country through the hawala channel. Reportedly, the above amounts were paid for election purposes". Shah not only provided Pawar with funds for elections but was also used by the latter to siphon money abroad. Says the report: "On behalf of the chief minister of Maharashtra, Pappu Kalyani (Kalani) had handed over Rs 20 crore to Cho-ksi in September 1990 for transferring abroad. Another amount of Rs 50 crore was transferred by Choksi on behalf of the chief minister." The deal was executed through an advocate.

The report says that Choksi had been in constant touch with Pawar till a few months before the Bombay blasts. A major transaction of Rs 10 crore allegedly took place in October 1992. In this transaction, say the documents, "Choksi delivered an amount of Rs 10 crore to the nephew of Sharad Pawar. The amount had reportedly come from the Middle-East." Shah was arrested under TADA on May 4, 1993, for funding Tiger Memon with Rs 2.5 crore for the blasts.

During the interrogation of Usman Ghani, an accused in the Bombay blasts case, it was revealed that he had established contacts with the glitterati of Bombay for siphoning their black money through the hawala conduit to foreign accounts. The report names "a very top politician of Bombay" apart from a few film stars. "Some of the important personalities whose money he (Ghani) transacted are Dilip Kumar, Feroz Khan and one Banerjee, an advocate of Bombay, who is reported to be very close to a very top politician of Bombay."

Hawala operators like Choksi mentioned in the MHA report are also involved in the new multi-crore Jain hawala scandal. Apart from Shah, the name of a Delhi-based hawala dealer, Shambhu Dayal Sharma alias Guptaji, figures in the report. It was Sharma's arrest in 1991 and his subsequent interrogation which led the CBI to raid J.K. Jain's residence, where it stumbled across the now-famous diaries. Sharma had told the CBI that he used to work for J.K Jain. The MHA reports say that Sharma had been funnelling money to politicians for over a decade.

Sharma's name first came to the notice of the authorities in May 1985 when he allegedly acted as a conduit for Choksi in a Rs 3-crore payoff to Arun Nehru, the then internal security minister.

Inquiries made by the Government agencies, on which the MHA report is based, reveals that Mool Chand Shah lived in 604, Rajendra Vihar, Guildern Lane, Lamington Road in Bombay. The hawala kingpin hails from Dhinmal village in Jalore district, Rajasthan. His father migrated to Bombay and tried his hand at the textile business. Later, the Shahs switched to the diamond trade.

Choksi's underworld activities aroused enough curiosity to prompt investigations by various agencies. But he managed to skip the dragnet of the law, thanks to his political clout. In March 1989, a detention order—No. SPL 3(A)PSA 0189/107 under COFEPOSA was issued against him. But this order was "revoked by the Government of Maharashtra" on May 10, 1990, "without assigning any reason".

The MHA report points out that "the revocation was done at the behest of the Home Minister of the Ruling Party (sic)," Arun Mehta, a close Pawar confidant. "For this action, Arun Mehta and other politicians were paid Rs 2 crore by Choksi," it notes.

The Enforcement Directorate and the Marine and Preventive Wing of the Customs, Bombay, also registered cases against Choksi in 1989 and 1990 respectively. He was arrested on November 30, 1990, in connection with one of the cases but was immediately released on bail. A development which the report clearly ascribes to his political connections. "Every time he procured his bail either on technical grounds through his lawyers or through money power."

It is also admitted that Choksi could never be interrogated at length because of the fact that he had "sympathisers" at the Centre and in the state government. He was held again in April 1991 following Sharma's arrest in connection with "an international conspiracy of funding terrorist organisations in Kashmir". Even when he was being interrogated by the Bombay police, Choksi used to claim that he could not be kept under detention for long because of his "high political connection". The report says: "He was dropping the name of Chandra Shekhar, former Prime Minister, in this connection."

A part of Dawood's operations were based in Gujarat, particularly along the coast. The MHA report also lists politicians from the state who had links with the underworld. Among those named is the then chief minister, late Chimanbhai Patel, and AICC General Secretary Ahmed Patel ( see box ).

The report, had it been tabled in Parliament along with the much-maligned Vohra panel report, would have fulfilled the objective set before it when it was constituted on July 9, 1993. After the Bombay blasts, when the then internal security minister Rajesh Pilot ordered that the committee be set up, it was asked "to take stock of all available information about the activities of crime syndicate/mafia organisations which had developed links with and were being protected by Government functionaries and political personalities."

The Vohra Committee had the information but no one in the Congress wanted it to see the light of day. The procrastinations that followed resulted in the 12 pages of generalities that has now come into the open and nothing specific about the vicious nexus in operation in three countries.


शरद पवार ने सबसे पहले किया था 'हिंदू आतंकवाद’ शब्द का प्रयोग

मुंबई [ओमप्रकाश तिवारी] हिंदू संगठनों पर आतंकवाद का ठप्पा लगाने का काम सबसे पहले शरद पवार ने किया था। वह भी 2008 में हुई साध्वी प्रज्ञा की गिरफ्तारी से ठीक पहले। केंद्रीय गृहमंत्री का पद संभालने वाले पी.चिदंबरम् एवं सुशील कुमार शिंदे ने इसके बाद ‘हिंदू आतंकवाद’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया।

29 सितंबर, 2008 को नासिक के मालेगांव कस्बे में हुए दो विस्फोटों में छह लोग मारे गए थे और करीब 100 लोग घायल हुए थे। इस घटना के छह दिन बाद ही 5-6 अक्टूबर को मुंबई से सटे रायगढ़ जिले के अलीबाग में शरद पवार की राष्ट्रवादी कांग्रेस पार्टी का अधिवेशन था। इसी अधिवेशन के समापन समारोह में मराठा छत्रप शरद पवार यह कहते हुए पुलिस पर दोहरा मापदंड अपनाने का आरोप लगाया था। उन्होंने कहा था कि पुलिस आतंकी घटनाओं में सिर्फ सिमी जैसे मुस्लिम संगठनों की जांच करती है, बजरंग दल जैसे हिंदू संगठनों की नहीं।

पवार ने अपने संबोधन में साफ कहा था कि यदि आतंक के लिए मुस्लिमों को निशाने पर लिया जा सकता है, तो सनातन प्रभात और बजरंग दल जैसे हिंदू संगठनों के विरुद्ध कोई कार्रवाई क्यों नहीं होती ? पवार ने अपने इसी संबोधन में गृह विभाग के अधिकारियों को अपने नजरिए में बदलाव लाने के निर्देश दिए थे और कहा था कि अंततोगत्वा देश की एकता सर्वोपरि है। अन्यथा इसकी कीमत समाज को चुकानी पड़ सकती है।

पवार ने अपने इसी संबोधन में कहा था कि जो भी लोग गैरकानूनी गतिविधियों में शामिल हैं, चाहें वे बजरंगदल के हों या सिमी के, उनके साथ समान व्यवहार किया जाना चाहिए। पवार ने आगे कहा था कि समाज के किसी एक हिस्से पर ही आतंकवादी का ठप्पा लगा देना अच्छे संकेत नहीं हैं। पवार ने संवाददाता सम्मेलनों में पुलिस द्वारा आतंकियों के नाम जाहिर करने पर भी आपत्ति जताई थी।

उन्होंने कहा था कि ऐसा करने से जांच में बाधा पैदा हो सकती है। पवार ने जिस दौरान ये बातें कही थीं, उस दौरान महाराष्ट्र के गृहमंत्री उनकी ही पार्टी के आर.आर.पाटिल थे। स्वयं शरद पवार केंद्र में कृषिमंत्री थे और केंद्रीय गृहमंत्रालय के प्रभारी शिवराज पाटिल थे। राज्य में आर.आर.पाटिल एवं केंद्र में शिवराज पाटिल को अपनी कुर्सी करीब डेढ़ माह बाद हुए 26/11 के हमले के बाद छोड़नी पड़ी थी। पी.चिंदबरम् ने उसके बाद केंद्रीय गृहमंत्रालय संभाला था।

बता दें कि पवार के इस बयान के अगले दिन, यानी सात अक्टूबर, 2008 को ही मालेगांव कांड की जांच कर रहे एक पुलिस अधिकारी सावंत ने साध्वी प्रज्ञा ठाकुर को फोन करके उनके नाम से पंजीकृत एलएमएल फ्रीडम मोटरसाइकिल के बारे में पूछताछ की थी। नासिक एटीएस कोर्ट में दाखिल साध्वी प्रज्ञा के शपथपत्र में कहा गया है कि फोन पर हुई उस बातचीत में ही सावंत ने उन्हें सूरत आने को कहा, जहां साध्वी के माता-पिता रह रहे थे। 10 अक्टूबर को साध्वी सूरत पहुंचीं।

एटीएस अधिकारी सावंत ने वहीं साध्वी को बताया कि उनकी मोटरसाइकिल का इस्तेमाल मालेगांव विस्फोट में हुआ है। तब साध्वी ने सावंत को जानकारी दी कि यह मोटरसाइकिल वह अक्टूबर 2004 में ही मध्यप्रदेश निवासी सुनील जोशी को बेच चुकी हैं। सावंत 10 अक्टूबर को ही साध्वी को उनके एक साथी के साथ मुंबई ले आए, जहां उनसे पूछताछ के दौरान उनपर वो सारे जुल्म हुए, जिनकी चर्चा आजकल साध्वी प्रज्ञा प्रेस के सामने कर रही हैं। उस दौरान हेमंत करकरे ही एटीएस प्रमुख थे।